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Periods

Early Medieval

Characterised by being of freestone, with mail covering the whole of the head, with a shield, crossed legs and right hand holding his sword. The crossed legs were formerly believed to indicate having been on a crusade but this has since been disproved.

William The Younger Valence -1282, Dorchester Priory, Oxfordshire

Monument to Richard Bugge 1261-1325, St Mary & All Saints Church, Willoughby on the Wolds, Nottinghamshire

Camail and Jupon Period

The Camail, or Aventail, being the mail hanging from the knight's bascinet covering the shoulders. The jupon, or surcoat, being the knight's coat of arms that was worn over his coat of mail. Earlier effigies have head resting on cushions, later on tournament helms with the family crest.

Monument to John 2nd Baron Willoughby Eresby 1303-1349 and his wife Joan Roscelyn, Willoughby Chapel, St James' Church, Spilsby, Lincolnshire

John Foljambe 1358, St John the Baptist Church, Tideswell

Monument to William 2nd Baron Greystoke 1321-1359, St Andrew's Church, Greystoke

John Wingfield 1320-1361, St Andrew's Church, Wingfield, Suffolk

Monument to Richard Willoughby -1369, St Mary & All Saints Church, Willoughby on the Wolds, Nottinghamshire

Monument to John 3rd Baron Willoughby Eresby 1323-1372, Willoughby Chapel, St James' Church, Spilsby, Lincolnshire

Monument to Nicholas II Longford 1334-1373, St Chad's Church, Longford, Derbyshire

Richard Pembridge 1320-1375, Hereford Market Place and Cathedral

Hugh Segrave Lord Keeper of the Great Seal Lord Treasurer 1296-1387, Dorchester Priory, Oxfordshire

Monument to Nicholas III Longford 1351-1401, St Chad's Church, Longford, Derbyshire

Edmund Cockayne 1356-1403 and his first wife Margaret Longford, St Oswalds Church, Ashbourne

Humphrey de Bohun, Hereford Market Place and Cathedral

Early Plate Period (Bascinet) Period

The basinet typically has a decorated orle. The Camail is replaced by plate armour protecting the throat, a gorget or bevor. Additional protection has been added the shoulders (pauldrons), elbows (couters) and knees (poleyns).

Monument to Guy de Brienne -1390, Tewkesbury Abbey

Monument to Sampson Strelley -1390 and Elizabeth Hercy, All Saints' Church, Strelley, Nottinghamshire

Monument to Robert 4th Baron Willoughby Eresby 1349-1396 and his third wife Elizabeth 5th Baroness Latimer Corby 1357-1395, Willoughby Chapel, St James' Church, Spilsby, Lincolnshire

William 6th Baron Ros Helmsley 1370-1414, St Mary the Virgin Church, Bottesford, Lincolnshire

Michael Pole 2nd Earl Suffolk 1361-1415 and Katherine Stafford 1376-1419, St Andrew's Church, Wingfield, Suffolk

John 7th Baron Ros Helmsley 1397-1421, St Mary the Virgin Church, Bottesford, Lincolnshire

Thurstan de Bower -1423 and Margaret, St John the Baptist Church, Tideswell

Monument to Ralph Neville 1st Earl Westmoreland 1364-1425 and his wives Margaret Stafford 1364-1396 and Joan Beaufort 1379-1440, St Mary's Church, Staindrop

Monument to William Rhyther 1360-1426 and Sybil Aldeburgh 1336-1439, All Saints Church, Harewood

Monument to Richard Redman 1350-1426 and Elizabeth Aldeburgh 1362-1417, All Saints Church, Harewood

Monument to Ralph Longford 1400-1432, St Chad's Church, Longford, Derbyshire

Monument to Edmund Cornwall 1382-1435, St Mary's Church, Burford, Shropshire

Monumen to John Cockayne -1438 and his first wife Margaret Longford, St Oswalds Church, Ashbourne

Monument to William Phelip 6th Baron Bardolf 1383-1441 and Joan 6th Baroness Bardolf -1447, St Mary's Church, Dennington, Suffolk

Monument to Hugh Willoughby 1380-1448 and Margaret Freville 1401-1493, St Mary & All Saints Church, Willoughby on the Wolds, Nottinghamshire

Fluted Period

Bare headed in the Henry V style. Breast plate in two parts. Shoulder, elbow and knee armous more elaborate. Neck protected by a mail standard ie closely fitted chain mail around the neck.

John Curzon -1406, All Saints, Kedleston

Monument to John 4th Baron Greystoke 1389-1426, St Andrew's Church, Greystoke

Monument to William Gascoigne 1409-1465 and Margaret Clarell, All Saints Church, Harewood

Monument to Nicholas Fitzherbert 1400-1473, Church of St Barlok, Norbury Church, Derbyshire

Monument to Humphrey Blount 1421-1477 and Elizabeth Winnington, Church of St John The Baptist, Kinlet, Shropshire

Monument to William Gascoigne 1452-1487 and Margaret Percy 1447-, All Saints Church, Harewood

Thomas Cockayne 1451-1488, All Saints, Youlgreave, Derbyshire

John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 and Elizabeth York 2nd Duchess Suffolk 1444-1503, St Andrew's Church, Wingfield, Suffolk

Monument to John Blount 1469-1531 and Catherine Peshall -1540, Church of St John The Baptist, Kinlet, Shropshire

Early Tudor Period

Bare headed in the Henry V style. Armour simplied. Left shoulder has additional protection to protect against the lance (typically broken of on most effigies).

John Curzon 1380-1456 and Joan Bagot, All Saints, Kedleston

Monument to Ralph Fitzherbert 1428-1484 and Elizabeth Marshall 1437-1490, Church of St Barlok, Norbury Church, Derbyshire

Monument to John Strelley 1456-1501 and Sanchia Willoughby 1452-1533, All Saints' Church, Strelley, Nottinghamshire

Monument to Edward Redman Lord Harewood 1455-1510 and Elizabeth Huddlestone 1450-1526, All Saints Church, Harewood

Middle Tudor Period

Memorial to Francis Hastings 2nd Earl Huntingdon 1514-1561 and his wife Catherine Pole 1511-1576, Hasting's Chapel, St Helen's Church, Ashby De la Zouche

Monument to Henry Manners 2nd Earl Rutland 1526-1563 and his wife Margaret Neville -1559, St Mary the Virgin Church, Bottesford, Lincolnshire

Elizabethan Period

Mostly mural (wall) monuments.

Monument to Catherine 12th Baroness Willoughby Eresby 1519-1580 and Richard Bertie 12th Baron Willoughby Eresby 1516-1582, Willoughby Chapel, St James' Church, Spilsby, Lincolnshire

Memorial to Christopher Wray 1524-1592 and Anne Girlington, St Michael's Church, Glentworth, Lincolnshire

Memorial to Thomas Cockayne 1520-1592 and his wife Dorothy Ferrers, St Oswalds Church, Ashbourne

Monument to William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598, St Martin's Church, Stamford

Monument to Peregrine Bertie 13th Baron Willoughby Eresby 1555-1601 and his daughter Catherine, Willoughby Chapel, St James' Church, Spilsby, Lincolnshire

Monument to Nicholas Longford 1532-1610, St Chad's Church, Longford, Derbyshire

Memorial to George St Paul Baronet 1562-1613 and Frances Wray -1634, St Lawrence's Church, Snarford, Lincolnshire

Memorial to Robert Rich 1st Earl Warwick 1559-1619 and Frances Wray -1634, St Lawrence's Church, Snarford, Lincolnshire

Great Helms and Crests

Clenched Fist Crest

Monument to Nicholas Fitzherbert 1400-1473, Church of St Barlok, Norbury Church, Derbyshire

Monument to Ralph Fitzherbert 1428-1484 and Elizabeth Marshall 1437-1490, Church of St Barlok, Norbury Church, Derbyshire

Cockerel Crest

Monumen to John Cockayne -1438 and his first wife Margaret Longford, St Oswalds Church, Ashbourne

Thomas Cockayne 1451-1488, All Saints, Youlgreave, Derbyshire

Dogs Head Crest

Monument to Edward Redman Lord Harewood 1455-1510 and Elizabeth Huddlestone 1450-1526, All Saints Church, Harewood

Eagle Crest

John Curzon 1380-1456 and Joan Bagot, All Saints, Kedleston

Elephant and Castle Crest

Memorial to Thomas St Paul -1582 and Faith Grantham, St Lawrence's Church, Snarford, Lincolnshire

Feathered Crest

Monument to William Phelip 6th Baron Bardolf 1383-1441 and Joan 6th Baroness Bardolf -1447, St Mary's Church, Dennington, Suffolk

Horses Head Crest

Monument to Richard Redman 1350-1426 and Elizabeth Aldeburgh 1362-1417, All Saints Church, Harewood

Maiden's Face

Monument to William Gascoigne 1409-1465 and Margaret Clarell, All Saints Church, Harewood

Peacock Crest

William 6th Baron Ros Helmsley 1370-1414, St Mary the Virgin Church, Bottesford, Lincolnshire

John 7th Baron Ros Helmsley 1397-1421, St Mary the Virgin Church, Bottesford, Lincolnshire

Monument to Thomas Manners 1st Earl Rutland 1492-1543 and his wife Eleanor Paston 1st Countess Rutland 1495-1551, St Mary the Virgin Church, Bottesford, Lincolnshire

Saracen's Head Crest

Monument to Sampson Strelley -1390 and Elizabeth Hercy, All Saints' Church, Strelley, Nottinghamshire

John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 and Elizabeth York 2nd Duchess Suffolk 1444-1503, St Andrew's Church, Wingfield, Suffolk

Monument to John Strelley 1456-1501 and Sanchia Willoughby 1452-1533, All Saints' Church, Strelley, Nottinghamshire

Sphinx Crest

Monument to Henry Willoughby 1451-1528, St Leonard's Church, Wollaton, Nottinghamshire

Female Headwear

Crespine Headress

Monument to Sampson Strelley -1390 and Elizabeth Hercy, All Saints' Church, Strelley, Nottinghamshire

Monument to William Gascoigne Lord Chief Justice 1350-1419 and Elizabeth Mowbray 1350-1396, All Saints Church, Harewood

Thurstan de Bower -1423 and Margaret, St John the Baptist Church, Tideswell

Monument to William Rhyther 1360-1426 and Sybil Aldeburgh 1336-1439, All Saints Church, Harewood

Monument to Richard Redman 1350-1426 and Elizabeth Aldeburgh 1362-1417, All Saints Church, Harewood

Monument to William Phelip 6th Baron Bardolf 1383-1441 and Joan 6th Baroness Bardolf -1447, St Mary's Church, Dennington, Suffolk

Butterfly Headress

Monumen to John Cockayne -1438 and his first wife Margaret Longford, St Oswalds Church, Ashbourne

Monument to Hugh Willoughby 1380-1448 and Margaret Freville 1401-1493, St Mary & All Saints Church, Willoughby on the Wolds, Nottinghamshire

Monument to Humphrey Blount 1421-1477 and Elizabeth Winnington, Church of St John The Baptist, Kinlet, Shropshire

Monument to Ralph Fitzherbert 1428-1484 and Elizabeth Marshall 1437-1490, Church of St Barlok, Norbury Church, Derbyshire

Widow's Barbe

Monument to William Gascoigne 1409-1465 and Margaret Clarell, All Saints Church, Harewood

Monument to William Gascoigne 1452-1487 and Margaret Percy 1447-, All Saints Church, Harewood

Gabled Headress

Monument to Thomas Babington 1449-1518 and Editha Fitzherbert 1457-1511, All Saints Church, Ashover, Derbyshire

Monument to John Blount 1469-1531 and Catherine Peshall -1540, Church of St John The Baptist, Kinlet, Shropshire

Feet

Dog

Monument to William Gascoigne 1409-1465 and Margaret Clarell, All Saints Church, Harewood

Monument to Humphrey Blount 1421-1477 and Elizabeth Winnington, Church of St John The Baptist, Kinlet, Shropshire

Monument to Edward Redman Lord Harewood 1455-1510 and Elizabeth Huddlestone 1450-1526, All Saints Church, Harewood

Monument to Thomas Babington 1449-1518 and Editha Fitzherbert 1457-1511, All Saints Church, Ashover, Derbyshire

Eagle

Monument to William Phelip 6th Baron Bardolf 1383-1441 and Joan 6th Baroness Bardolf -1447, St Mary's Church, Dennington, Suffolk

John Curzon 1380-1456 and Joan Bagot, All Saints, Kedleston

Lion

William Longsword Longespée 3rd Earl Salisbury 1176-1226, Salisbury Cathedral

Monument to Richard Redman 1350-1426 and Elizabeth Aldeburgh 1362-1417, All Saints Church, Harewood

Monument to Edmund Cornwall 1382-1435, St Mary's Church, Burford, Shropshire

Monument to Nicholas Fitzherbert 1400-1473, Church of St Barlok, Norbury Church, Derbyshire

Monument to Ralph Fitzherbert 1428-1484 and Elizabeth Marshall 1437-1490, Church of St Barlok, Norbury Church, Derbyshire

Monument to Ralph Fitzherbert 1428-1484 and Elizabeth Marshall 1437-1490, Church of St Barlok, Norbury Church, Derbyshire

John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 and Elizabeth York 2nd Duchess Suffolk 1444-1503, St Andrew's Church, Wingfield, Suffolk

Monument to John Strelley 1456-1501 and Sanchia Willoughby 1452-1533, All Saints' Church, Strelley, Nottinghamshire

Monument to John Blount 1469-1531 and Catherine Peshall -1540, Church of St John The Baptist, Kinlet, Shropshire

Monument to William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598, St Martin's Church, Stamford

Manticore

Memorial to Francis Hastings 2nd Earl Huntingdon 1514-1561 and his wife Catherine Pole 1511-1576, Hasting's Chapel, St Helen's Church, Ashby De la Zouche

Swans

Memorial to Hugh 10th Earl Devon 1303-1377 and Margaret Bohun 1311-1391, Exeter Cathedral

Wyvern

Monument to William Phelip 6th Baron Bardolf 1383-1441 and Joan 6th Baroness Bardolf -1447, St Mary's Church, Dennington, Suffolk

Livery Collars

Lancastrian SS Collar

John Curzon -1406, All Saints, Kedleston

William 6th Baron Ros Helmsley 1370-1414, St Mary the Virgin Church, Bottesford, Lincolnshire

Thurstan de Bower -1423 and Margaret, St John the Baptist Church, Tideswell

Monument to William Rhyther 1360-1426 and Sybil Aldeburgh 1336-1439, All Saints Church, Harewood

Monument to Richard Redman 1350-1426 and Elizabeth Aldeburgh 1362-1417, All Saints Church, Harewood

Monument to John 4th Baron Greystoke 1389-1426, St Andrew's Church, Greystoke

Monument to Ralph Longford 1400-1432, St Chad's Church, Longford, Derbyshire

Monumen to John Cockayne -1438 and his first wife Margaret Longford, St Oswalds Church, Ashbourne

Monument to William Phelip 6th Baron Bardolf 1383-1441 and Joan 6th Baroness Bardolf -1447, St Mary's Church, Dennington, Suffolk

Monument to William Phelip 6th Baron Bardolf 1383-1441 and Joan 6th Baroness Bardolf -1447, St Mary's Church, Dennington, Suffolk

Monument to William Gascoigne 1452-1487 and Margaret Percy 1447-, All Saints Church, Harewood

Monument to Henry Willoughby 1451-1528, St Leonard's Church, Wollaton, Nottinghamshire

Monument to John Blount 1469-1531 and Catherine Peshall -1540, Church of St John The Baptist, Kinlet, Shropshire

Yorkist Suns and Roses Collar

Monument to William Gascoigne 1409-1465 and Margaret Clarell, All Saints Church, Harewood

Monument to Nicholas Fitzherbert 1400-1473, Church of St Barlok, Norbury Church, Derbyshire

Monument to Humphrey Blount 1421-1477 and Elizabeth Winnington, Church of St John The Baptist, Kinlet, Shropshire

Monument to Ralph Fitzherbert 1428-1484 and Elizabeth Marshall 1437-1490, Church of St Barlok, Norbury Church, Derbyshire

Monument to Ralph Fitzherbert 1428-1484 and Elizabeth Marshall 1437-1490, Church of St Barlok, Norbury Church, Derbyshire

Thomas Cockayne 1451-1488, All Saints, Youlgreave, Derbyshire

Tudor Livery Collar

Monument to Ralph Fitzherbert 1428-1484 and Elizabeth Marshall 1437-1490, Church of St Barlok, Norbury Church, Derbyshire

Monument to Edward Redman Lord Harewood 1455-1510 and Elizabeth Huddlestone 1450-1526, All Saints Church, Harewood

Pendants

Yorkist Boar

Monument to Nicholas Fitzherbert 1400-1473, Church of St Barlok, Norbury Church, Derbyshire

Belts

Arse Girdle

John 7th Baron Ros Helmsley 1397-1421, St Mary the Virgin Church, Bottesford, Lincolnshire

Monument to Ralph Longford 1400-1432, St Chad's Church, Longford, Derbyshire

Monument to William Phelip 6th Baron Bardolf 1383-1441 and Joan 6th Baroness Bardolf -1447, St Mary's Church, Dennington, Suffolk

Monument to Hugh Willoughby 1380-1448 and Margaret Freville 1401-1493, St Mary & All Saints Church, Willoughby on the Wolds, Nottinghamshire

Hands

Holding Hands

Monument to Sampson Strelley -1390 and Elizabeth Hercy, All Saints' Church, Strelley, Nottinghamshire

Cadaver Tombs

Cadaver

Monument to Richard Willoughby -1471 and Anna Leeke, St Leonard's Church, Wollaton, Nottinghamshire

Alice Chaucer 1404-1475, St Mary's Church, Ewelme, Oxfordshire

Monument to Henry Willoughby 1451-1528, St Leonard's Church, Wollaton, Nottinghamshire

Cadaver Cenotaph to Abbot Wakeman, Tewkesbury Abbey

Cadaver underneath

Monument to Richard Willoughby -1471 and Anna Leeke, St Leonard's Church, Wollaton, Nottinghamshire

Alice Chaucer 1404-1475, St Mary's Church, Ewelme, Oxfordshire

Monument to Henry Willoughby 1451-1528, St Leonard's Church, Wollaton, Nottinghamshire

Legs

Crossed Legs

William The Younger Valence -1282, Dorchester Priory, Oxfordshire

Monument to Richard Bugge 1261-1325, St Mary & All Saints Church, Willoughby on the Wolds, Nottinghamshire

Garter

Leg Garter

Monument to William Phelip 6th Baron Bardolf 1383-1441 and Joan 6th Baroness Bardolf -1447, St Mary's Church, Dennington, Suffolk

John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 and Elizabeth York 2nd Duchess Suffolk 1444-1503, St Andrew's Church, Wingfield, Suffolk

Monument to Thomas Manners 1st Earl Rutland 1492-1543 and his wife Eleanor Paston 1st Countess Rutland 1495-1551, St Mary the Virgin Church, Bottesford, Lincolnshire

Memorial to Francis Hastings 2nd Earl Huntingdon 1514-1561 and his wife Catherine Pole 1511-1576, Hasting's Chapel, St Helen's Church, Ashby De la Zouche

Wrist Garter

Alice Chaucer 1404-1475, St Mary's Church, Ewelme, Oxfordshire