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England

Wars of the Roses

Richard III

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England

Wars of the Roses

Richard III

20 Apr 1483 St Georges Chapel: Funeral of Edward IV

Edward IV King England [41]

Thomas Rotherham Archbishop York [60] celebrated the mass

John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk [58] attended

02 Apr 1483 John Pole 1st Earl Lincoln [21] Chief Mourner

Edward Stanley 1st Baron Monteagle [21] pall-bearer

John VIII Savage [39] pallbearer

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England

Wars of the Roses

Richard III

30 Apr 1483 Stony Stratford: Richard III's Dinner with the Woodvilles

Richard III King England [31] attended

Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers [43] attended

Richard Grey [26] attended

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England

Wars of the Roses

Richard III

01 May 1483 Arrest of the Woodville Affinity

Richard III King England [31] attended

Edward V King England [13] captured

Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers [43] arrested

Thomas Vaughan [73] arrested

Richard Grey [26] arrested

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England

Wars of the Roses

Richard III

c 03 May 1483 Elizabeth Woodville takes Sanctuary at Wesminster Abbey

Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England [46] took sanctuary

Richard of Shrewsbury York 1st Duke York, 1st Duke Norfolk [10] took sanctuary

Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset [28] took sanctuary

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England

Wars of the Roses

Richard III

04 May 1483 Death of George Neville

George Neville should have inherited his father's lands and titles since his father, John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu, was not attainted after his death at the Battle of Barnet. Parliament choose to ignore the natural succession and allocated his father's lands to Richard III King England.

It is interesting to note three of his aunts had married to nobilty who would play a key part in history.

Katherine Neville had married William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings who was executed 13 Jun 1483.

Eleanor Neville and Margaret Neville had married Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby and John Vere 13th Earl Oxford repsectively, both of whom were to play a significant role in the subsequent success of Henry VII

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England

Wars of the Roses

Richard III

10 May 1483 John Russell replaced Thomas Rotherham as Lord Chancellor

Thomas Rotherham, having previously given the Great Seal to Elizabeth Woodville and subsequently recovered it and given it to Cardinal Bourchier, was no longer trusted by Richard so replaced him with the loyal John Russell.

13 May 1483 Thomas Rotherham Archbishop York [60] replaced as Lord Chancellor

13 May 1483 John Russell Bishop Rochester, Bishop Lincoln appointed Lord Chancellor

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England

Wars of the Roses

Richard III

13 Jun 1483 Tower of London: Execution of Hastings

At a council meeting ostensibly to discuss the coronation Hastings was accused of treason and summarily executed. John Morton, and Thomas Rotherham Archbishop York, lately Lord Chancellor, being Lords Spiritual, avoided execution and were imprisoned in the Tower.

Richard III King England [31] attended the Council meeting

John Morton [63] arrested

Thomas Rotherham Archbishop York [60] arrested

Henry Stafford 2nd Duke Buckingham [29] attended the Council meeting

William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings [52] beheaded at Tower Green as a result of being accused of treasonable conspiracy with the Queen

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England

Wars of the Roses

Richard III

16 Jun 1483 Richard, Duke of York, removed from Sanctuary to the Tower

Thomas Bourchier [65] took the younger brother of Edward V Richard of Shrewsbury York 1st Duke York, 1st Duke Norfolk to the Tower

Richard of Shrewsbury York 1st Duke York, 1st Duke Norfolk [10] taken to by Thomas Bourchier

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England

Wars of the Roses

Richard III

22 Jun 1483 St Paul's Cross: The Princes of the Tower described as Illegitimate

Robert Stillington Bishop Bath and Wells, had advised Richard, Duke of Gloucester, future King Richard III, that he, Stillington, had officiated at the wedding of Edward IV and Eleanor Talbot before Edward's marriage to Elizabeth Woodville making the subsequent marriage bigamous and their children, therefore, illegitimate. Since George York 1st Duke Clarence had been attainted his children were ineligible for the throne and therefore, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, was King Edward IV's rightful heir. Ralph Shaa, half-brother of the Mayor of London, preached the new found illegitimacy of the Princes in the Tower at St Paul's Cross.

Ralph Shaa preached the bastardy of Edward IV's children by Elizabeth Woodville including Edward V being therefore ineligible to be King.

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England

Wars of the Roses

Richard III

25 Jun 1483 Pontefract Castle: Execution of the Woodvilles and their Affinity

Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers [43] beheaded

Thomas Vaughan [73] beheaded

Richard Grey [26] executed

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England

Wars of the Roses

Richard III

26 Jun 1483 Richard III elected King by the Three Estates

Was it a usurpation of Edward V? Not necessarily. If Robert Stillington was being truthful and King Edward IV's marriage to Elizabeth Woodville was bigamous then the children were illegitimate and excluded from the succession; Richard III was the lawful heir to the throne.

In both the previous usurpations, Edward II King England and Richard II King England, the Kings were forced to abdicate. In the case of Richard III Edward V was regarded as ineligible for the succession so not required to abdicate; Edward V wasn't King because he was illegitimate. The argument rests solely on the word of Richard Stillington. It is worth noting that Stillington had been imprisoned by King Edward IV in 1478 for some unknown reason; the same that George York 1st Duke Clarence was executed by his brother, the reason for which is unknown.

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England

Wars of the Roses

Richard III

06 Jul 1483 Westminster Abbey: Coronation of Richard III

Richard III King England [31] crowned III King England: Plantagenet York

Thomas Bourchier [65] presided

Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England [46] attended

Anne Neville Queen Consort England [27] appointed Queen Consort England

Elizabeth York 2nd Duchess Suffolk [39] processed in Queen Anne's train

Henry Stafford 2nd Duke Buckingham [29] carried the king's train

John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk [41] carried the Sceptre

Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk [40] carried the Crown

John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk [58] appointed Lord High Steward

Henry Percy 5th Earl Northumberland [5] carried The Blunt Sword of Mercy

Margaret Beaufort 1st Countess Richmond, 1st Countess Derby [40] held Queen Anne's train

Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby [48] carried the Lord High Constable's Mace

Edward Stafford 2nd Earl Wiltshire [13] bore the Queen's Crown

John Pole 1st Earl Lincoln [21] carried the Cross and Ball

Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent [67] carried The Pointed Sword of Justice

22 Aug 1485 Thomas Fitzalan 17th Earl Arundel [35] attended

Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell [27] carried the Third Sword of State

Christopher Willoughby 10th Baron Willoughby Eresby [30] appointed Knight of the Bath

Richard Hastings 9th Baron Willoughby Eresby [50] attended

Humphrey Dacre 1st Baron Dacre Gilsland [59] attended

Thomas St Leger [43] attended

Robert Dymoke [22] attended as the Kings's Champion

William Brandon [58] present

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England

Wars of the Roses

Richard III

c Aug 1483 Tower of London: Disappearance of the Princes in the Tower

Edward V King England [13] disappeared

Richard of Shrewsbury York 1st Duke York, 1st Duke Norfolk [10] disappeared

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England

Wars of the Roses

Richard III

08 Sep 1483 York Minster: Edward of Middleham created Prince of Wales

Richard III King England [31] attended

Anne Neville Queen Consort England [27] attended

Edward of Middleham York Prince Wales [10] Earl Chester (6C 1483)

Edward of Middleham York Prince Wales [10] Prince Wales

Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick [8] knighted

Edward Stafford 2nd Earl Wiltshire [13] present

John York of Gloucester [11] knighted

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England

Wars of the Roses

Richard III

Oct 1483 Buckingham's Rebellion

02 Nov 1483 Henry Stafford 2nd Duke Buckingham [29] beheaded at Marketplace

c Oct 1483 Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset [28] escaped to Henry VII in Brittany

1483 Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon escaped to Henry VII in Brittany

Richard Woodville 3rd Earl Rivers [30] attainted

John Welles 1st Viscount Welles [33] escaped at Brittany

1483 Giles Daubeney 1st Baron Daubeney [32] escaped to Henry VII in Brittany

c Oct 1483 Robert Willoughby 1st Baron Willoughby Broke [31] escaped to Henry VII in Brittany

1483 Walter Hungerford took part

c Oct 1483 Richard Guildford [33] escaped to Henry VII in Brittany

08 Nov 1483 Thomas St Leger [43] executed at Exeter Castle

04 Dec 1483 George Browne [43] beheaded at Tower Hill

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England

Wars of the Roses

Richard III

02 Jul 1484 Battle of Kirtie

William Douglas 4th Lord Drumlanrig killed

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England

Wars of the Roses

Richard III

22 Jul 1484 Lochmaden: Battle of Lochmaben Fair

James Douglas 3rd Earl Avondale, 9th Earl Douglas [58] captured

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England

Wars of the Roses

Richard III

1484 Titulus Regius

The Act of Parliament by which Richard III justified his usurpation of King Edward V. Richard described, on the evidence of Bishop Stillington, how his eldest brother King Edward IV was precontracted to Eleanor Butler and, as a consequence, his marriage to Elizabeth Woodville was invalid and, therefore, the children of the marriage, were illegitimate and, therefore, not eligible for the succession.

The only evidence of the precontract was the word of Bishop Stillington. He is vague insofar as he doesn't specify when or where. He only confirms, conveniently, that he was the only witness.

Titulus Regius doesn't describe when the pre-contract was supposed to have occurred. Eleanor Butler was born around 1436. She was married at 13 to Thomas Butler. King Edward IV was born 1442 so he would have been around six at the time of Eleanor's marriage. It is hardly credible that Edward would have entered into a pre-contract on his own volition (his father was in France) around the age of six?

Eleanor's husband died sometime before Mar 1461. Edward married Elizabeth Woodville in 1464. There is then a window of three years during which Edward may have been precontracted. The position is further confused by Eleanor having been one of Edward's mistresses for a long period.

On the accession of King Henry VII Titulus Regius was repealed and all copies destroyed. Fortunately, one copy survived.

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England

Wars of the Roses

Richard III

07 Aug 1485 Henry Tudor lands at Mill Bay

Henry VII King England and Ireland [28]

Philibert Chandee 1st Earl Bath knighted by Henry VII

Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon knighted by Henry VII

John Welles 1st Viscount Welles [35] knighted by Henry VII

John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne [43] knighted by Henry VII

John Blount 3rd Baron Mountjoy [35] landed

Richard Guildford [35] knighted by Henry VII

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England

Wars of the Roses

Richard III

22 Aug 1485 Ambion Hill: Battle of Bosworth

At which the future Henry VII King England and Ireland defeated his cousin Richard III King England. Usually described as the last battle of the Wars of the Roses some argue the Battle of Stoke Field two years later brought the Wars of the Roses to a close.

Henry's Lancastrian descent somewhat tenuous being the son of Margaret Beaufort 1st Countess Richmond, 1st Countess Derby who was descended from the legitimated children of John of Gaunt Lancaster 1st Duke Lancaster. Although legitmated the Beauforts were excluded from the succession so arguably Henry had no right to the throne. Might rather than right prevailed. There were no legitimate Lancastrian descendants left.

John Sacheverell [85] killed

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England

Wars of the Roses

Richard III

Battle of Bosworth

Lancaster

Henry VII King England and Ireland [28] succeeded VII King England and Ireland: Tudor

Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford [54]

Philibert Chandee 1st Earl Bath

Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon

John Vere 13th Earl Oxford [43] commanded

Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby [50]

William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont [47]

Henry Marney 1st Baron Marney [38]

Giles Daubeney 1st Baron Daubeney [34]

George Stanley 5th Baron Mohun Dunster, 9th Baron Strange Knockin [25] held as a hostage by Richard III before the battle

John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne [43]

John Blount 3rd Baron Mountjoy [35]

William Stanley Lord Chamberlain [50]

Roger Kynaston [52]

Edward Woodville

John Wingfield

Gilbert Talbot [33] commanded

John VIII Savage [41] commanded

Robert Poyntz [35] knighted

William Norreys [44] commanded

Walter Hungerford

Richard Guildford [35]

William Brandon [29] killed

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England

Wars of the Roses

Richard III

Battle of Bosworth

York

Richard III King England [33] killed

Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk [42] wounded

John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk [60] killed

William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley [59]

Henry Percy 4th Earl Northumberland [36] betrayed by not commitng his forces to battle.

George Talbot 4th Earl Shrewsbury, 4th Earl Waterford [17]

John Pole 1st Earl Lincoln [23]

Ralph Neville 3rd Earl Westmoreland [29]

Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent [69]

Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell [29] fought and escaped

Walter Devereux 7th Baron Ferrers of Chartley [53] killed

John Zouche 7th Baron Zouche Harringworth [26] captured

Henry Grey 7th Baron Grey of Codnor [50]

Thomas Scrope 6th Baron Scrope Masham [26]

John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope Bolton [48]

Richard Fitzhugh 5th Baron Fitzhugh [28]

Thomas Dacre 2nd Baron Dacre Gilsland [18]

John Bourchier 6th Baron Ferrers of Groby [47]

Richard Ratclyffe [55] killed

Robert Mortimer [43] killed

Humphrey Stafford [59]

James Harrington [55] killed

John Conyers

William Catesby [35] captured

John Babington [62] killed by John Blount 3rd Baron Mountjoy

25 Aug 1485 William Catesby [35] executed at Leicester