1450-1459-Commencement of the Wars of the Roses

15 Apr 1450 Battle of Formigny

On 15 Apr 1450 Charles Bourbon I Duke Bourbon (49) and Arthur Montfort III Duke Brittany (56) commanded at the Battle of Formigny at Formigny at which Thomas Kyriell (54) was captured.

01 May 1450 Murder of William de la Pole

Before 01 May 1450 William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk exiled for five years for having lost the English possessions in Northern France including Anjou and Maine which were part of Margaret of Anjou's wedding settlement. [Murder of William de la Pole]

On 01 May 1450 William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk (53) was beheaded at sea whilst travelling into exile his ship having been intercepted by the Nicholas of the Tower. [Murder of William de la Pole]

c Jul 1450 Jack Cade's Rebellion

On 04 Jul 1450 James Fiennes 1st Baron Saye and Sele (55) and his son in law William Cromer (34) were beheaded at Standard. Humphrey Stafford (50) was killed at Sevenoaks. William Tresham was indicted for treason. Robert Poynings (31) joined the rebellion. [Jack Cade's Rebellion]

14 May 1452 Battle of Brechin

On 18 May 1452 brothers William Gordon and Henry Gordon were killed at Brechin during the Battle of Brechin

05 Jan 1453 Knighting at Greenwich

On 05 Jan 1453 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (22) , Thomas Neville (22) , William "Black William" Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke (30) , brothers Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond (22) and Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford (21) and Roger Lewkenor were knighted by Henry VI King England, II King France (31) at Greenwich during the Knighting at Greenwich

07 Jul 1453 Battle of Castillon

In 07 Jul 1453 regarded as the last battle of the Hundred Years War the Battle of Castillon was fought at Castillon. John "Old Talbot" Talbot 1st Earl Shrewsbury, 1st Earl Waterford (70) and John Talbot 1st Viscount Lisle (27) were killed. Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford (22) and John Foix Earl Kendal (43) were captured.

24 Aug 1453 Battle of Heworth Moor

After 01 May 1453 Thomas Neville and Maud Stanhope were married. Maud Stanhope was the niece and heiress of Ralph Cromwell 3rd Baron Cromwell meaning traditional Percy lands would become Neville lands. The Percy's, being the older family, especially Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont, took umbrage. [Battle of Heworth Moor]

On 24 Aug 1453 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (22) was ambushed at Heworth Moor by Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont (30) leading a force of 700+ men when returning with his brother's wedding party from Tattershall Castle to Sheriff Hutton. [Battle of Heworth Moor]

13 Oct 1453 Birth of Edward of Westminster (Westminster Palace)

On 13 Oct 1453 Edward Lancaster Prince Wales was born to Henry VI King England, II King France (31) and Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England (23) at Westminster Palace. When Henry VI King England, II King France (31) recovered from his catatonic state, he greeted the child as a 'miracle'. There is some speculation as the child's actual father since Henry VI King England, II King France (31) and Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England (23) had been married for many years before the child was born. Edmund Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset (47) has been suggested. [Birth of Edward of Westminster]

31 Oct 1454 Neville - Percy Battle (Stamford Bridge)

On 31 Oct 1454 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (23) and Thomas Neville (23) captured Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont (31) and Richard Percy (28) at Stamford Bridge during the Neville - Percy Battle

01 May 1455 Battle of Arkinholm (Langholm)

On 01 May 1455 the Douglas rebellion was brought to an end at the Battle of Arkinholm near Langholm. Archibald Douglas 8th Earl Moray (29) was killed. Hugh Douglas 1st Earl Ormonde was executed. John Douglas (22) escaped.

22 May 1455 First Battle of St Albans

On 22 May 1455 the Wars of the Roses commenced at the First Battle of St Albans. Richard York Prince Wales (43) commanded with Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (27) , Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury (55) , Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham (40) and Walter Strickland (44) .

On 22 May 1455 at the First Battle of St Albans. The Lancastrians Edmund Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset (49) , Henry Percy 2nd Earl Northumberland (62) , William Cotton, Thomas Clifford 8th Baron Clifford (41) and Richard Fortescue (41) were killed. Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke Buckingham (52) was wounded and captured. Henry VI King England, II King France (33) , John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley (54) and Edmund Dudley (30) were captured. Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset (19) was wounded. James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire, 5th Earl Ormonde (34) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (55) fought.

15 Dec 1455 Battle of Clyst Heath (Exeter)

On 15 Dec 1455 the Courtenay family, Earls of Devon since 1355, and Bonville family resolved their differences at the Battle of Clyst Heath. Thomas Courtenay 13th Earl Devon (41) defeated William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville (63) .

25 Apr 1457 John Neville married Isabel Ingaldsthorpe (Canterbury Cathedral)

On 25 Apr 1457 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (26) and Isabel Ingaldsthorpe (16) were married by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier (39) at Canterbury Cathedral during the John Neville married Isabel Ingaldsthorpe

24 Mar 1458 Loveday (Westminster Abbey)

On 24 Mar 1458 Cardinal Thomas Bourchier (40) presided at Westminster Abbey during the Loveday. John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford (22) , Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury (58) , Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (30) , Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset (22) , Richard York Prince Wales (46) , Henry Percy 3rd Earl Northumberland (36) , Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont (35) and Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England (28) attended in an attempt to reconcile the Lancastrian and Yorkist factions.

23 Sep 1459 Battle of Blore Heath (Market Drayton)

On 23 Sep 1459 John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley (58) attempted to ambush John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (28) whilst he was travelling to Ludlow to join up with the main Yorkist army. Forewarned by scouts arranged his troops into battle order. The Yorkist army included John Conyers, Thomas Harrington (59) , James Harrington (29) , Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury (59) , William Stanley Lord Chamberlain (24) , Roger Kynaston (26) , John Savile, Walter Strickland (48) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (59) . The Lancastrian army included John Dutton, Thomas Dutton (38) and Peter Dutton who were killed. James Tuchet 5th Baron Audley Heighley (61) was killed by Roger Kynaston (26) . John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley (58) and Edmund Dudley (34) were captured. Lionel Welles 6th Baron Welles (53) fought. [Battle of Blore Heath]

After 23 Sep 1459 James Harrington, John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu and Thomas Neville were captured at Acton Bridge and imprisoned at Chester Castle having been detached from the main Yorkist force. [Battle of Blore Heath]

12 Oct 1459 Battle of Ludford Bridge

On 12 Oct 1459 the Battle of Ludford Bridge nearly took place at Ludford Bridge. In the event a large number of the Calais garrison refused to fight against Henry VI King England, II King France (37) who was present. The Yorkist leaders left overnight: Richard York Prince Wales (48) , the future Edward IV King England (17) , Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland (16) , Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (31) , Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury (59) and John Dinham 1st Baron Dinham (26) . Thomas Parr (52) was present. The Lancastrian army included Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke Buckingham (57) and William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel (41) .

09 Oct 1459 Parliament of the Devils (Coventry)

On 09 Oct 1459 Thomas Tresham (39) was appointed as Speaker of the House of Commons at Coventry during the Parliament of the Devils. John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (28) was attainted.